NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE (1804-1864)
ECONOMY AND SOCIETY:
IDEOLOGY AND CULTURE:
| American Romanticism|
The individual valued over the group;
The subjective valued over the objective;
The personal experience valued over reason;
The wilderness of nature valued over human-made order;
Support for human rights;
Elements of the supernatural;
Reaction against the negative effects of industrialization (commercialism, hectic pace, lack of conscience);
Importance of nature and man’s relationship with it;
The human psyche is observed in different manifestations.
A sub-genre of Romanticism that developed from Romantic principles but integrated neo-classical views.
A sub-genre of Romanticism that developed as a reaction against the light feeling of transcendentalist writing and emphasized the dark and the macabre.
Transcendent feeling (the reader is transported away from the world).
– believed that humans, nature, and God are interconnected;
– had a close relationship with nature;
– celebrated imagination and emotions;
– encouraged spiritual well-being over financial well-being.
– regarded nature as divine and as a universal organic mediator;
– considered that humans possess divinity and wisdom.
Fear of death
Paranoia from guilt/remorse
Use of Gothic elements: grotesque characters, situations, violent events.
The bizarre imagination is the place where the fantastic, the demonic, and the insane meet.
Nature is dark and eerie;
Human is prone to sin and self-destruction.
THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORK