Contextualization (E.A.P) Copy

EDGAR ALLAN POE (1809-1849)

CONTEXT

HISTORY:

  • Struggle for independence is over  ̶  American War of Independence (1775-1783);
  • The USA is threatened by the rivalry between the North and the South;
  • Civil War (1861-1865) was caused by the issue of slavery; the North was more industrialised and educated, while the South practiced slavery and had an agricultural economy. The Civil War ended with the abolition of slavery.

ECONOMY AND SOCIETY:

  • Massive immigration from Europe and China;
  • The North undergoes an Industrial Revolution based on iron and steel production;
  • The South exported cotton and relied on slave labour;
  • A transport network was developed to stimulate trade. Roads, railways, and steamboats were built;
  • Technological inventions: mass production of motorcars (Henry Ford); the invention of the telephone (Alexander Graham Bell -1876);
  • After the Civil War immigration increased and business boomed;
  • By the end of the 19th century, the USA had become a huge, modern, industrialised nation;
  • The segregation after the Civil War transformed the Black population from slaves to second-hand citizens (no education, no right to vote, illiterate).

IDEOLOGY AND CULTURE:

  • American Renaissance – the first decades of the 19th century marked the emergence of truly American literature.
  • Literature was still derived from British literary tradition, but began to depict American society and explore the American landscape.
                        American Romanticism  
The individual valued over the group;
The subjective valued over the objective;
The personal experience valued over reason;
The wilderness of nature valued over human-made order;
Support for human rights;
Elements of the supernatural;
Reaction against the negative effects of industrialization (commercialism, hectic pace, lack of conscience);
Importance of nature and man’s relationship with it;
The human psyche is observed in different manifestations.  
 Transcendentalism A sub-genre of Romanticism that developed from Romantic principles but integrated neo-classical views.  Dark Romanticism
A sub-genre of Romanticism that developed as a reaction against the light feeling of transcendentalist writing and emphasized the dark and the macabre.
Neo-classicism:
Order
Objectivity
Nature
Self-reliance
Transcendent feeling (the reader is transported away from the world).
 
Transcendentalists:
believed that humans, nature, and God are interconnected;
had a close relationship with nature;
celebrated imagination and emotions;encouraged spiritual well-being over financial well-being.
Nature is divine and a universal organic mediator;
Humans possess divinity and wisdom.  
Literary themes:
Fear of death
Revenge
Paranoia from guilt/remorse
Use of Gothic elements: Grotesque characters;
situations;
Violent events.
The bizarre imagination is the place where the fantastic, the demonic, and the insane meet.
Nature is dark and eerie;
Human is prone to sin and self-destruction.

THE AUTHOR AND HIS WORK

  • Born in Boston;
  • Orphaned at a young age, was raised by a middle-class family;
  • Attended the University of Virginia and West Point, but never finished his studies.
  • One of the first American writers who tried to live by writing alone;
  • Had many financial difficulties and setbacks because of the writing and publishing industry.

Short stories:

  • “The Black Cat”“The Gold-Bug”“The Masque of the Red Death”“The Murders in Rue Morgue”“The Fall of the House of Usher”“The Tell-Tale Heart”

Poetry

  • “Annabel Lee”
  • “Eulalie”
  • “Tamerlane”
  • “The Raven”

Literary criticism:

  • “The Philosophy of Composition” (1846) – Essay
  • “The Poetic Principle” (1848) – Essay